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Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol.166, No.6, B456-B463, 2019
A High-Performance Nonenzymatic Urea Sensor Based on Graphene-NiO-Polyaniline
A novel graphene-NiO-polyaniline (Gr-NiO-PANI) was prepared by electrolysis, electrodeposition and electropolymerization methods, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) proved the successful preparation and composition of the Gr-NiO-PANI hybrid. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to further determine the structure and morphology of as-prepared composites. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that Gr-NiO-PANI composite had excellent detection effect on urea. By comparing the electrochemical behavior of Gr-NiO-PANI with Gr-NiO and Gr-PANI modified electrodes toward urea, the role of NiO in composite and the detection mechanism of urea were explored. A common linear sweep voltammetry technique was used to detect urea. The test results showed that urea exhibited a good response on the Gr-NiO-PANI modified electrode. In the range of 60 similar to 160 mu M urea concentration, the response current of the Gr-NiO-PANI modified electrode is proportional to the urea concentration, and the concentration stand curve equation was I(mu A) = -0.0886C(mu M) + 58.39 (R-2 = 0.9917). The as-fabricated sensor exhibited high sensitivity (1.266 mu A/mu M), lower limit of detection (7.35 mu M), excellent reproducibility, and so it can provide a simple and cheap method for detection of urea in environmental monitoring, agriculture, medical industry. (C) 2019 The Electrochemical Society.