Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.141, No.13, 5154-5158, 2019
Hierarchical-Coassembly-Enabled 3D-Printing of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Covalent Organic Frameworks
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are crystalline polymers with permanent porosity. They are usually synthesized as micrometer-sized powders or two-dimensional thin films and membranes for applications in molecular storage, separation, and catalysis. In this work, we report a general method to integrate COFs with imine or beta-ketoenamine linkages into three-dimensional (3D)-printing materials. A 3D-printing template, Pluronic F127, was introduced to coassemble with imine polymers in an aqueous environment. By limitation of the degree of imine polycondensation during COF formation, the amorphous imine polymer and F127 form coassembled 3D-printable hydrogels with suitable shear thinning and rapid self-healing properties. After the removal of F127 followed by an amorphous-to-crystalline transformation, three beta-ketoenamine- and imine-based COFs were fabricated into 3D monoliths possessing high crystallinity, hierarchical pores with high surface areas, good structural integrity, and robust mechanical stability. Moreover, when multiple COF precursor inks were employed for 3D printing, heterogeneous dual-component COF monoliths were fabricated with high spatial precision. This method not only enables the development of COFs with sophisticated 3D macrostructure but also facilitates the heterogeneous integration of COFs into devices with interconnected interfaces at the molecular level.