Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol.360, 1390-1406, 2019
gamma-Radiolysis as a highly efficient green approach to the synthesis of metal nanoclusters: A review of mechanisms and applications
Over the past two decades, the radiosynthesis of metallic nanoclusters (MNCs) using gamma-irradiation (gamma-radiosynthesis) has presented a wealth of opportunities for the application of nanomaterials in areas such as medicine, energy, catalysis, and sensors. Unlike conventional methods, this technique provides fully reduced and highly stable MNCs that are free from by-products or impurities. gamma-Radiosynthesis has thus proven to be a clean and green approach for bulk fabrication of MNCs with tunable particle sizes and morphologies. More recently, the in-situ decoration of MNCs on support materials using gamma-irradiation has attracted much attention due to the synergistic effect between MNCs and the underlying support. In this review, we discuss the current state of research into the mechanisms underlying the gamma-radiosynthesis of supported and unsupported mono- and bi-metallic nanoclusters and summarize the use of MNCs in catalysis, sensing, biomedicine, and energy applications.