Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.511, No.1, 185-191, 2019
Prognostic significance of high metabolic activity in breast cancer: PET signature in breast cancer
High metabolic activity, reflected in increased glucose uptake, is one of the hallmarks of many cancers including breast cancer. However, not all cancers avidly take up glucose, suggesting heterogeneity in their metabolic demand. Thus, we aim to generate a genomic signature of glucose hypermetabolism in breast cancer and examine its clinical relevance. To identify genes significantly associated with glucose uptake, gene expression data were analyzed together with the standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of F-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose on positron emission tomography (PET) for 11 breast cancers. The resulting PET signature was evaluated for prognostic significance in four large independent patient cohorts (n = 5417). Potential upstream regulators accountable for the high glucose uptake were identified by gene network analysis. A PET signature of 242 genes was significantly correlated with SUVmax in breast cancer. In all four cohorts, high PET signature was significantly associated with poorer prognosis. The prognostic value of this PET signature was further supported by Cox regression analyses (hazard ratio 1.7, confidential interval 1.48-2.02; P < 0.001). The PET signature was also strongly correlated with previously established prognostic genomic signatures such as PAM50, Oncotype DX, and NKI. Gene network analyses suggested that MYC and TBX2 were the most significant upstream transcription factors in the breast cancers with high glucose uptake. A PET signature reflecting high glucose uptake is a novel independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. MYC and TBX2 are potential regulators of glucose uptake. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.