Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.511, No.2, 350-355, 2019
Staphylococcal superantigen-like 12 activates murine bone marrow derived mast cells
Staphylococcal superantigen-like (SSL) protein is a family of exotoxins that consists of 14 SSLs, and the roles of several SSLs in immune evasion of the cocci have been revealed. However little is known whether they act as immune activators and are involved in inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis. In this study we examined whether SSLs activate mast cells, the key player of local inflammation. SSL12 evoked the release of a granule enzyme beta-hexosaminidase from bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) in the absence of IgE. The release of the granule enzyme caused by SSL12 was not accompanied with the leakage of a cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), unlike staphylococcal delta-toxin that was reported to induce both the release of beta-hexosaminidase and the leakage of LDH from the cells, suggesting that SSL12 evokes the degranulation of mast cells without cell membrane damage. Furthermore SSL12 induced IL-6 and IL-13 in both mRNA and protein levels indicating that SSL12 induces de novo synthesis of the cytokines. Evans blue extravasation was elevated by the intradermal injection of SSL12, suggesting that SSL12 is also able to evoke local inflammation in vivo. These findings indicate the novel mast cell activating activity of SSLs, and SSL12 is likely an important factor in both initiation phase and effector phase of allergic and immune responses. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.