Langmuir, Vol.35, No.5, 1534-1543, 2019
Dual-Mode Dark Field and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Liposomes for Lymphoma and Leukemia Cell Imaging
Multifunctional probes are needed to characterize individual cells simultaneously by different techniques to provide complementary information. A preparative method and an in vitro demonstration of function are presented for a dual-function dark field microscopy/surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) liposome probe for cancer. Liposomes composed of zwitterionic lipids are valuable both to limit biofouling and to serve as a modular matrix to incorporate a variety of functional molecules and hence are used here as vehicles for SERS-active materials. Dark field microscopy and SERS represent new combined functionalities for targeted liposomal probes. Two methods of antibody conjugation to SERS liposomes are demonstrated: (i) direct conjugation to functional groups on the SERS liposome surface and (ii) postinsertion of lipid-functionalized antibody fragments (Fabs) into preformed SERS liposomes. In vitro experiments targeting both lymphoma cell line LY10 and primary human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells demonstrate the usefulness of these probes as optical contrast agents in both dark field and Raman microscopy.