Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.140, No.47, 16032-16036, 2018
How Do Enzymes Orient When Trapped on Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Surfaces?
Enzyme immobilization in metal organic frameworks (MOFs) offers retained enzyme integrity and activity, enhanced stability, and reduced leaching. Trapping enzymes on MOF surfaces would allow for catalysis involving large substrates. In both cases, the catalytic efficiency and selectivity depend not only on enzyme integrity/concentration but also orientation. However, it has been a challenge to determine the orientation of enzymes that are supported on solid matrices, which is even more challenging for enzymes immobilized/trapped in MOFs due to the interferences of the MOF background signals. To address such challenge, we demonstrate in this work the utilization of site-directed spin labeling in combination with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy, which allows for the first time the characterization of the orientation of enzymes trapped on MOF surfaces. The obtained insights are fundamentally important for MOF-based enzyme immobilization design and understanding enzyme orientation once trapped in solid matrices or even cellular confinement conditions.