Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol.537, 333-344, 2019
Vascular endothelial growth factor immobilized on mussel-inspired three-dimensional bilayered scaffold for artificial vascular graft application: In vitro and in vivo evaluations
Currently, there is a great clinical demand for biocompatible and robust tissue-engineered tubular scaffolds for use as artificial vascular graft materials. Despite considerable research on vascular scaffolds, there has still been only limited development of scaffold materials possessing both sufficient mechanical strengths and biological effects for vascular application. In this work, we designed a mechanically robust, bilayered scaffold and manufactured it by combining electrospinning (ELSP) and three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques. This material was coated with polydopamine (PDA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was grafted directly on the scaffold surface to induce potent angiogenic activity. We confirmed that the coated-PDA layer was evenly deposited on the bare polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold and could enable abundant VEGF immobilization with enhanced hydrophilicity. The VEGF immobilized porous tubular scaffold was well prepared without mechanical weakness induced by surface modification steps. During in vitro and in vivo testing, VEGF immobilized scaffolds elicited markedly enhanced vascular cell proliferation and angiogenic differentiation, as compared to non-treated groups. These results demonstrate that the developed scaffolds may represent an innovative paradigm in vascular tissue engineering by inducing angiogenesis as a means of remodeling and healing vascular defects for use in restorative procedures. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Inc.