IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol.63, No.12, 4079-4093, 2018
On the Optimal Control of Passive or Nonexpansive Systems
The positive-real and bounded-real lemmas solve two important linear-quadratic optimal control problems for passive and nonexpansive systems, respectively. The lemmas assume controllability, yet a passive or non-expansive system can be uncontrollable. In this paper, we solve these optimal control problems without making any assumptions. In particular, we show how to extract the greatest possible amount of energy from a passive but not necessarily a controllable system (e.g., a passive electric circuit) using state feedback. A complete characterization of the set of solutions to the linear matrix inequalities in the positive-real and bounded-real lemmas is also obtained. In addition, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for a system to be nonexpansive that augment the bounded-real condition with new conditions relevant to uncontrollable systems.