Electrochimica Acta, Vol.296, 882-890, 2019
Investigation of ion transport in chemically tuned pillared graphene materials through electrochemical impedance analysis
Chemically tuned pillared graphene structures show ability to limit restacking of graphene sheets for electrochemical energy storage in SCs. A comprehensive electrochemical characterization using various ion sizes allowed identification of ion-sieving in the cross-linked galleries of reduced pillared graphene materials (RPs). The access to the cross-linked galleries, which provide additional ion sorption sites, offered slightly increased capacitances in RPs compared to completely restacked sheets in reduced graphene oxide (RGO). We performed electrochemical impedance analyses on RPs and RGO to understand the ion transport inside the cross-linked graphene galleries. RGO adsorbs ions in the inter-particle micro/meso pores and the ion access to such sites from the bulk electrolyte occurs with relative ease. RPs sieve ions into their inter-layer gallery pores based on effective ion sizes and the ion transport process is resistive compared to RGO. A control study using 3D pillared graphene hydrogel with improved macro porosity assigns this resistive behavior and the moderate capacitances to limited ion access to the active sites due to excess number of pillars. The obtained results on the ion transport dynamics between graphene layers provide perspectives towards further optimization of these graphene materials for SCs. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.