Bioresource Technology, Vol.275, 386-393, 2019
Hydrochars from industrial macroalgae "Gelidium Sesquipedale" biomass wastes
Macroalgae wastes from the Agar-Agar industry were used as a feedstock to obtain hydrochars by means of hydrothermal carbonization. The effect of temperature (200 degrees C and 230 degrees C) and time (2 h and 6 h) on the yield, higher heating value (HHV) and chemical-morphological-textural properties of the hydrochars was studied. The carbon content and the higher heating value were observed to increase with the hydrothermal carbonization. The hydrochars yields (up to 60%) were much higher than yields obtained using conventional char (27.5-33.5%). The hydrochar obtained at 230 degrees C and after 6 h showed a HHV of 23.25 MJ/kg, which is similar to that of lignite HHV. The H/C and O/C atomic ratios decreased as a consequence of the dehydration and decarboxilation reactions. Hydrothermal carbonization barely changed the vegetal structure of the macroalgae waste. The hydrochars were found to be essentially meso-macroporous with average pore sizes of up to 110.5 nm.