Biomass & Bioenergy, Vol.120, 404-416, 2019
A PLS-MGA analysis of farming characteristics on the intentions of smallholder oil palm planters to collect palm residues for biofuel production
There is a considerable literature on the influence of farming characteristics on the farmers' intention to supply agricultural and forestry residues. However, the most of the studies focused on the direct causal-effect relationship between farming characteristic variables and the farmers' intention to supply residues. Different considerations regarding the different farming characteristics segment remain unanswered. Moreover, farming characteristics with insignificant results can be misinterpreted as unimportant by policy makers and biofuel producers, and therefore they can misjudge the influence of the overall farming characteristics. Supported by an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study used the PLS-MGA to demonstrate the moderation effect of the four farming characteristics - dependency on the FFB collectors, landownership status, plantation size, and plantation experience - on smallholder planters' intentions to supply palm residues for biofuel production. The results show that smallholder planters from each farming characteristic group consider supplying palm residues differently, compared to the other groups of planters. Clarifying the different considerations accordingly can provide an insight into formulating an effective engagement strategy to foster the involvement of smallholder planters providing feedstock for biofuel production.