Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.509, No.1, 108-113, 2019
A new osteoclastogenesis pathway induced by cancer cells targeting osteoclast precursor cells
The precise mechanism of osteolysis induced by tumors infiltrating into the bone remains unclear. The main hypothesis is that tumor cells generate receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), or other molecules that activate the expression of RANKL in osteoblasts, osteocytes, or bone marrow stromal cells. Administration of bisphosphonates or anti-RANKL antibody drugs, which suppress systemic bone resorption, prevents osteolysis induced by tumors infiltrating into the bone. However, these therapeutic agents may cause medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. In this study, we found a novel tumor-associated osteoclastogenesis pathway in osteoclast precursor cells. Co-culture with human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, 3A or NEM, or culture with each of their conditioned medium induced many osteoclasts from osteoclast precursor cells, which were generated by a 24-h pretreatment of RANKL or TNF-alpha. Osteoprotegerin, a decoy RANKL receptor, denosumab, an anti-RANKL antibody drug, and infliximab, an anti-TNF-alpha antibody drug, did not prevent this tumor-associated osteoclastogenesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of NFATc1 was decreased in this tumor-associated osteoclastogenesis, which was suggested to be independent of NFATc1. These results revealed a novel pathway for tumor-associated osteoclastogenesis, which may be a new therapeutic target for osteolysis induced by tumors infiltrating into the bone without affecting systemic bone metabolism. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.