Applied Surface Science, Vol.475, 676-683, 2019
Cationic and anionic modification of CdS thin films by surface chemical treatment
Structural and physical properties of thin solid films can be modified by surface treatment. In this work, chemical bath deposited CdS thin films were treated both by a mercury chloride solution and by a saturated H2S gas. The effect of these treatments on electrical properties is clearly observed. Hg2+ doped CdS films show the highest dark and photo-conductivities, whereas the sulfurized CdS films become photo-insensitive. In Hg2+ doped CdS samples, new crystalline Hg3S2Cl2 and Hg-2(ClO4)(2)4H(2)O phases are found, and particle size reduction is observed at the surface. Both optical and electrochemical Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis suggest an intraband level in the electronic structure of Hg2+ modified CdS. Sulfurized CdS films, on the other hand, keep unchanged their crystalline and morphological structure, as well as optical properties. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and M-S analysis indicate an increase of sulfur concentration at the surface of sulfurized CdS thin films, leading to a more stoichiometric CdS compound, which used to have lower conductivity. It demonstrates that ion exchange process or cationic substitution is effective for structural and physical property modification, whereas a gaseous saturation method or anionic modification results in a notable surface energy alteration in thin solid CdS films.