화학공학소재연구정보센터
Applied Energy, Vol.236, 893-905, 2019
Pontryagin's Minimum Principle based model predictive control of energy management for a plug-in hybrid electric bus
To improve computational efficiency of energy management strategies for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), this paper proposes a stochastic model predictive controller (MPC) based on Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP), which differs from widely used dynamic programming (DP)-based predictive methods. First, short-time speed forecasting is achieved using a Markov chain model, based on real-world driving cycles. The PMP- and DP-based MPCs are compared under four preview horizons (5 s, 10 s, 15 s and 20 s), and the results show that the computational time of the DP-MPC is almost four times of that in the PMP-MPC. Moreover, the influence of predication horizon length on computational time and energy consumption is examined. Given a preview horizon of 5 s, the PMP-MPC holds a total energy consumption cost of 7.80 USD and computational time per second of 0.0130 s. When the preview horizon increases to 20 s, the total cost is 7.77 USD with the computational time per second increasing to 0.0502 s. Finally, DP, PMP, and rule -based strategies are contrasted to the PMP-MPC method, further demonstrating the promising performance and computational efficiency of the proposed methodology.