Journal of Supercritical Fluids, Vol.140, 290-301, 2018
Hydrothermal conversion of biomass (Xanthium strumarium) to energetic materials and comparison with other thermochemical methods
In the present study, the biomass was converted into liquid and solid residues by using hydrothermal liquefaction method at 250, 300 and 350 degrees C with (FeCl3, NaOH) and without catalyst. The resultant products were examined using GC-MS, FT-IR, H-1 NMR, SEM, and elemental analysis methods. According to the performed analyses, the highest liquid product yield (total bio-oil) was found to be 38.08% at 300 degrees C by using FeCl3 as catalyst. In the experiments carried out at 350 degrees C, the highest HHV value was found to be 32.35 MJ kg(-1) by using NaOH catalyst. The energy values of products obtained at the end of experiments were compared to the values obtained from pyrolysis and supercritical liquefaction method, and it was determined that the liquid products having higher level of energy value were achieved by using hydrothermal liquefaction method.