Electrochimica Acta, Vol.292, 546-557, 2018
Spray printing and optimization of anodes and cathodes for high performance Li-Ion batteries
A spray printing manufacturing approach to lithium-ion batteries was investigated with a focus on minimizing inactive fractions and maximizing energy and power densities of printable electrodes. Using a lithium titanate based anode initially and comparing with conventional electrodes, the effects of conductivity enhancer and binder fractions, post-calendaring effects, different electrode manufacturing methods, conductivity enhancer types and electrode thicknesses were explored, and optimum electrode structures were identified. These insights were then applied to a lithium iron phosphate based cathode, and full spray printed lithium titanate/lithium iron phosphate cell configurations were investigated. Notably, the full-cell battery with a 1:1 capacity ratio of lithium titanate to lithium iron phosphate had a stable specific energy density of similar to 300 Wh/kg and a power density of similar to 2500 W/kg, showing the promise of layer-by-layer spray printing to realize fully the intrinsic properties of electrode materials in lithium-ion battery cells. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.