Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol.354, 113-125, 2018
Strong promoted catalytic ozonation of atrazine at low temperature using tourmaline as catalyst: Influencing factors, reaction mechanisms and pathways
Tourmaline, an economical and eco-friendly natural mineral, has been widely used during the water treatment processes. In this investigation, the raw tourmaline has been found to be effective as a catalyst for ozonation in the degradation of atrazine (ATZ) under low temperature (278 K). Within typical experimental conditions (tourmaline dosage= 1 g L-1, [ATZ](0)= 5 mu M, [O-3](0)= 3 mg L-1, at pH 7.0 and 278 K), the removal efficiency of ATZ in catalytic ozonation was 98% after 10 min, compared with only 27% ATZ removal in the absence of catalyst. Surface properties and components of tourmaline were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), pyridine-FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The characterization studies showed that metal attached hydroxyl groups (MeOH, M= Fe, Al and Si) were the main active sites for ozone adsorption and decomposition. The formation of hydroxyl radicals (center dot OH) as well as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) led to fast ATZ degradation and 31 kinds of intermediates; meanwhile, possible degradation pathways of ATZ were detected and proposed. The mechanisms of reaction were proposed for tourmaline-catalyzed ozonation based on all the experimental results and material characterizations.