Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.503, No.1, 86-93, 2018
RHCG suppresses cervical cancer progression through inhibiting migration and inducing apoptosis regulated by TGF-beta 1
Cervical cancer is the second commonest cancer among women in the worldwide, and the majority cause of death in various countries, highlighting the importance of investigating new therapeutic targets. Rh family, C glycoprotein (RHCG) belongs to the Rhesus (Rh) family and was first identified as Rh blood group antigens. It has been confirmed to function in cancer progression, including prostate cancer and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, its role in cervical cancer has never been explored. The present study indicated that RHCG was down-regulated in cervical cancers compared to that in normal cervical tissues, and further decreased in cervical cancer cell lines. Functionally, RHCG overexpression reduced cervical cancer cell proliferation and migration, as evidenced by the decreased transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expressions in cancer cells; however, an opposite effect was observed when RHCG was knocked down. Further, increase of RHCG markedly induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells by improving the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP). And cells transfected with RHCG siRNA exhibited a notable reduction of cleaved Caspase-3 and PARR. Moreover, nucleus nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and whole cell xIPA expressions were markedly reduced by over-expressing RHCG. Conversely, suppressing RHCG elevated NF-kappa B activation and xIPA expression in cervical cancer cells. Notably, we found that TGF-beta 1 treatment could abolish the effects of RHCG over-expression on the reduction of cell migration and enhancement of apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Over-expressing RHCG-reduced NF-kappa B activation and xIPA expression were also abrogated by TGF-beta 1 pre-treatment. Additionally, enhancing NF-kappa B activity could restore xIPA expressions and decrease apoptotic response in cervical cancer cells over-expressing RHCG. In vivo, we also found that RHCG over-expression reduced cervical tumor growth through the same signaling pathways as we found in vitro. Therefore, RHCG may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for human cervical cancer. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier Inc.