Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.504, No.2, 380-386, 2018
Casein kinase 2 promotes interaction between Rad17 and the 9-1-1 complex through constitutive phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail of human Rad17
An interaction between the Rad17-RFC2-5 and 9-1-1 complexes is essential for ATR-Chk1 signaling, which is one of the major DNA damage checkpoints. Recently, we showed that the polyanionic C-terminal tail of human Rad17 and the embedded conserved sequence iVERGE are important for the interaction with 9-1-1 complex. Here, we show that Rad17-S667 in the C-terminal tail is constitutively phosphorylated in vivo in a casein kinase 2-dependent manner, and the phosphorylation is important for 9-1-1 interaction. The serine phosphorylation of Rad17 could be seen in the absence of exogenous genotoxic stress, and was mostly abolished by S667A substitution. Rad17-S667 was also phosphorylated when the C-terminal tail was fused with EGFP, but the phosphorylation was inhibited by two casein kinase 2 inhibitors. Furthermore, interaction between Rad17 and the 9-1-1 complex was inhibited by the casein kinase 2 inhibitor CX-4945/Silmitasertib, and the effect was dependent on the Rad17-S667 residue, indicating that S667 phosphorylation is the only role of casein kinase 2 in the 9-1-1 interaction. Our data raise the possibility that the C-terminal tail of vertebrate Rad17 regulates ATR-Chk1 signaling through multi-site phosphorylation in the iVERGE. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.