Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol.185, No.4, 884-908, 2018
Anti-Hypertensive Peptides Derived from Caseins: Mechanism of Physiological Action, Production Bioprocesses, and Challenges for Food Applications
This review is focused on the state-of-art of peptides with inhibitory activity towards angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) - thus, with anti-hypertensive potential - derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. Firstly, molecular characteristics of caseins relevant to a better understanding of this subject were concisely commented. Next, a brief description of the pathophysiology of hypertension was explained, focusing on the ACE role in regulation of blood pressure in human body. Then, casein-derived peptides with ACE inhibitory capacity were specifically addressed. The main in vitro and in vivo bioassays often reported in literature to assess the anti-hypertensive potential of peptides were presented, illustrated with recently published studies, and discussed in terms of advantages and limitations of both approaches. Characteristics related to amino acid composition and sequence of peptides with high ACE-inhibitory potential were also commented. Process parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis (types and origins of casein substrates, types of enzymes, pH, temperature, and times of reactions) were discussed. Patents dealing with casein-derived anti-hypertensive peptides were examined not only in terms of amino acid sequences, but also regarding their novelty claims in hydrolysis process parameters. Finally, some trends, challenges, and opportunities inferred from this literature analysis were commented, emphasizing the importance of this research topic in food products development.