Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol.180, 168-172, 2018
Quantum efficiency of femtosecond-laser sulfur hyperdoped silicon solar cells after different annealing regimes
Annealing dependent absorption and quantum efficiency spectra are determined on femtosecond-laser, sulfur hyperdoped silicon solar cells in a spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm. Although the samples, which are rapidly quenched after annealing at T = 1250 degrees C, do not feature the highest sub-bandgap absorption, the highest sub-bandgap quantum efficiency is measured on the same level as on non-annealed samples, featuring the highest sub-bandgap absorption. Findings on annealing dependent absorption are carried over, in order to explain the measured quantum efficiency spectra. In the sub-bandgap spectral range conversion is more efficient, when deep sulfur centers are obtained from annealing at higher temperatures at preferably rapid quenching. For those annealing regimes the above-bandgap quantum efficiency is decreased, which is ascribed to less shallow sulfur donors. Lower temperatures or slow cooling rates results in shallow donors, featuring a more efficient conversion in the above-bandgap spectral range. This is on the expense of deep sulfur centers and the corresponding subbandgap conversion ability. Therewith it is concluded, that the main absorption occurs only in the laser-induced sulfur emitter layer. Furthermore, to some extent a prediction is proposed on sulfur hyperdoped silicon prepared by ion implantation and subsequent pulsed laser melting, featuring rapid cooling from the melt.