Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.140, No.24, 7568-7578, 2018
Bisphosphonate-Generated ATP-Analogs Inhibit Cell Signaling Pathways
Bisphosphonates are a major class of drugs used to treat osteoporosis, Paget's disease, and cancer. They have been proposed to act by inhibiting one or more targets including protein prenylation, the epidermal growth factor receptor, or the adenine nucleotide translocase. Inhibition of the latter is due to formation in cells of analogs of ATP: the isopentenyl ester of ATP (ApppI) or an AppXp-type analog of ATP, such as AMP-clodronate (AppCCl(2)p). We screened both ApppI as well as AppCCl(2)p against a panel of 369 kinases finding potent inhibition of some tyrosine kinases by AppCCl(2)p, attributable to formation of a strong hydrogen bond between tyrosine and the terminal phosphonate. We then synthesized bisphosphonate preprodrugs that are converted in cells to other ATP-analogs, finding low nM kinase inhibitors that inhibited cell signaling pathways. These results help clarify our understanding of the mechanisms of action of bisphosphonates, potentially opening up new routes resorption, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory drug leads.