Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.501, No.3, 668-673, 2018
2-Deoxy-D-glucose increases GFAT1 phosphorylation resulting in endoplasmic reticulum-related apoptosis via disruption of protein N-glycosylation in pancreatic cancer cells
The glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) causes energy starvation, affecting cell viability in a wide range of cancer cell lines. To determine the action of 2DG in pancreatic cancer, we performed proteomic analysis of pancreatic cancer cell line after 2DG treatment. Eighty proteins showed differential expression and among these, proteins involved in phosphohexose metabolism were upregulated. Up regulation of glutamine: fructose 6-phosphate aminotransferase 1 (GFAT1), which belongs to the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) that produces uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) to maintain glycoprotein, was validated by evaluation of mRNA and protein levels. Therefore, we assessed the amounts of total N-glycoproteins. Unexpectedly, we found a reduction of total N-glycoproteins and phosphorylation of GFAT1 by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These data may shed light on HBP dysfunction. Furthermore, we found endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress accompanied by increased expression of ER stress markers, such as glucose response protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), in 2DG-treated cells. Moreover, the additive activation of AMPK by metformin (Met) synergistically enhanced the reduction of protein N-glycosylation and cell growth inhibition in the presence of 2DG. These results suggest that 2DG reduces N-glycosylation of proteins following the increase of phosphorylation of GFAT1 and results in the inhibition of cell growth mediated by ER stress in pancreatic cancer cells. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.