Applied Surface Science, Vol.445, 404-414, 2018
Integration of graphene onto silicon through electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide layers in non-aqueous medium
Wafer-scale integration of reduced graphene oxide with H-terminated Si(111) surfaces has been accomplished by electrochemical reduction of a thin film of graphene oxide deposited onto Si by drop casting. Two reduction methods have been assayed and carried out in an acetonitrile solution. The initial deposit was subjected either to potential cycling in a 0.1 M TBAPF(6)/CH3CN solution at scan rates values of 20 mV s(-1) and 50 mV s(-1), or to a potentiostatic polarization at E-lambda,(c) = -3 V for 450 s. The resulting interface has been characterized in its surface composition, morphology and electrochemical behavior by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical measurements. The results evidence that few-layer graphene deposits on H-Si(111) were obtained after reduction, and use of organic instead of aqueous medium led to a very limited surface oxidation of the Si substrate and a very low oxygen-to-carbon ratio. The described approach is fast, simple, economic, scalable and straightforward, as one reduction cycle is already effective in promoting the establishment of a graphene-Si interface. It avoids thermal treatments at high temperatures, use of aggressive chemicals and the presence of metal contaminants, and enables preservation of Si(111) surface from oxidation. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.