Applied Surface Science, Vol.445, 16-23, 2018
Modified pulse laser deposition of Ag nanostructure as intermediate for low temperature Cu-Cu bonding
To lower the Cu-Cu bonding temperature and save the time of the bonding process applied for 3D integration, the Ag nanostructure deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) was designed and decorated on the Cu pads as intermediate. Influences of different PLD process parameters on the designed Ag nanostructure morphology were investigated in this work. The large nanoparticles (NP) defects, NPs coverage rate on the Cu pad, and NPs size distribution were adopted to evaluate the PLD parameters based on the NPs morphology observation and the Cu-Cu bonding quality. The medium laser power of 0.8 W, smaller distance between target and substrate, and protective container should be applied in the optimized PLD to obtain the Ag nanostructure. Then a loose 3D mesh Ag nanostructure consisted of the protrusions and grooves was formed and the morphology observation proved the nanostructure deposition mechanism was contributed to the block of nano-film nucleation and nanoparticles absorption. Finally, the relationship between the bonding temperature and pressure suitable for the Ag nanostructure had been determined based on shear strength and interface observation. The results revealed the combination of higher bonding temperature (250 degrees C) and lower pressure (20 MPa), or lower bonding temperature (180 degrees C) and higher pressure (50 MPa) can both achieve the bonding process with the short bonding time of 5 min and annealing at 200 degrees C for 25 min in vacuum furnace. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.