Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol.102, No.10, 4535-4548, 2018
Interactions between carbon and nitrogen sources depend on RIM15 and determine fermentative or respiratory growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Nutritional homeostasis is fundamental for alcoholic fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Carbon and nitrogen have been related to this metabolic process; nevertheless, little is known about their interactions with the media and the energetic metabolism. Rim15p kinase is a point of convergence among different nutrient-activated signaling pathways; this makes it a target to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and energetic metabolism. To improve the current knowledge of nutrient interactions and their association with RIM15, we validated the doubling time as an indicator of growth phenotype, confirming that this kinetic parameter can be related to the cellular bioenergetic status. This endorses the usefulness of a threshold in doubling time values as an indicator of fermentative (<= 6.5 h) and respiratory growth (>= 13.2 h). Using the doubling time as response variable, we find that (i) two second-order interactions between type and concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources significantly affected the growth phenotype of S. cerevisiae; (ii) these metabolic interactions changed when RIM15 was deleted, suggesting a dependence on this gene; (iii) high concentration of ammonium (5% w/v) is toxic for S. cerevisiae cells; (iv) proline prompted fermentative growth phenotype regardless presence or absence of RIM15; (v) RIM15 deletion reverted ammonium toxicity when cells were grown in glucose (10% w/v); and (vi) RIM15 deletion improves fermentative metabolism probably by a partial inhibition of the respiration capacity. This study reveals the existence of synergic and diverse roles of carbon and nitrogen sources that are affected by RIM15, influencing the fermentative and respiratory growth of S. cerevisiae.