Advanced Powder Technology, Vol.29, No.9, 2108-2118, 2018
Role of optimization parameters in the production of nanoporous carbon from mandarin shells by microwave-assisted chemical activation and utilization as dye adsorbent
In this study, mandarin (Citrus reticulata) shells (MS) were used as a new precursor material for preparation of nanoporous carbon by chemical activation method with H3PO4 in the presence of microwave radiation. The obtained nanoporous carbon (MNC) was characterized using nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration analysis. When using impregnation ratio of 2.0 at 500 degrees C for 1 h, specific surface area of prepared MNC reached the maximum value, which is 1021 m(2)/g. Pore properties of MNC were strongly influenced by impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time. For industrial and environmental applications, MNC was tested towards the removal of basic blue 9 (BB9) and acid yellow 36 (AY36) dyes in aqueous media and compared with other carbon adsorbents. The high sorption capacities were 294 mg/g for BB9 and 417 mg/g for AY36. The results indicate that MNC could be regard as a valuable adsorbent to treatment dye pollutants. (C) 2018 The Society of Powder Technology Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. and The Society of Powder Technology Japan. All rights reserved.