Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.207, 330-336, 2018
Tailoring bismuth oxide flower-, bowtie- and brushwood-like structures through microfluidic synthesis
Bismuth oxide structures resembling flowers, bowties and brushwood-like assemblies were successfully produced utilizing microfluidic synthesis approach. The molecular length of surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG) was critical in shaping the particle morphology, while the laminar flow in micro-channels assured the complete structures without breakage. The PEG with 200 Molecular Weight (MW) assists to produce 1-2 mu m flower-like structures, while the PEG with 8000 MW yields to the highly crystalline bowtie and brushwood-like structures with up to 60 mu m size. The particle morphology examination along microfluidic network coupled with fluid dynamics calculations showed that the complex structures are completed at the end of micro-channel tubes, at the residence time less than 13 s. The as received bismuth oxide particles were tested for oxidizing activity in nano-energetic material Al-Bi2O3. The formulation containing flower-shaped structures was superior to brushwood-like oxidizer, and produced the maximum pressure discharge value of about 4.9 kPa m(3) g(-1), which is comparable to highest reported values in literature. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.