Langmuir, Vol.34, No.10, 3349-3362, 2018
Mechanism of Initial Stage of Pore Formation Induced by Antimicrobial Peptide Magainin 2
Antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 forms pores in lipid bilayers, a property that is considered the main cause of its bactericidal activity. Recent data suggest that tension or stretching of the inner monolayer plays an important role in magainin 2-induced pore formation in lipid bilayers. Here, to elucidate the mechanism of magainin 2-induced pore formation, we investigated the effect on pore formation of asymmetric lipid distribution in two monolayers. First, we developed a method to prepare giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and lyso-PC (LPC) in the inner monolayer and of DOPG/DOPC in the outer monolayer. We consider that in these GUVs, the lipid packing in the inner monolayer was larger than that in the outer monolayer. Next, we investigated the interaction of magainin 2 with these GUVs with an asymmetric distribution of LPC using the single GUV method, and found that the rate constant of magainin 2-induced pore formation, k(p), decreased with increasing LPC concentration in the inner monolayer. We constructed a quantitative model of magainin 2-induced pore formation, whereby the binding of magainin 2 to the outer monolayer of a GUV induces stretching of the inner monolayer, causing pore formation. A theoretical equation defining k(p) as a function of magainin 2 surface concentration, X, reasonably explains the experimental relationship between k(p) and X. This model quantitatively explains the effect on k(p) of the LPC concentration in the inner monolayer. On the basis of these results, we discuss the mechanism of the initial stage of magainin 2-induced pore formation.