Journal of Adhesion, Vol.94, No.2, 143-154, 2018
Properties of plywood panels bonded with ionic liquid-modified lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin
The aim of this research was to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels bonded with ionic liquid-modified lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resin. For this purpose, soda bagasse lignin was modified by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]) ionic liquid, and then, various contents of modified lignins (10, 15, and 20 wt%) were added as a substitute of phenol in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin synthesis. The properties of the synthesized resin were compared with those of a control PF resin. The changes in curing behavior of the resins prepared were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physical properties of the resins prepared, as well as the water absorption, thickness swelling, shear strength, and formaldehyde emission of the plywood panels bonded with these adhesives, were measured according to standard methods. DSC analysis indicated that in comparison with PF resins, curing of the LPF resin occurred at lower temperatures. The physical properties of the synthesized resins indicated that viscosity and solid content increased, while gel time and density decreased by addition of treated lignin to the PF resin. Although the panels containing resins with modified lignin yielded low formaldehyde emission, their dimensional stability was worse than those bonded with a commercial PF adhesive. The plywood prepared using IL-treated lignin PF resins has shear strength, which satisfy the requirements of the relevant standards specifications and significantly better than that of panels prepared with the control PF resin. The mechanical properties of the panels could be significantly enhanced with increased percentage of treated lignin content from 0 to 20 wt%.