International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol.43, No.6, 3253-3260, 2018
Old-loofah-derived hard carbon for long cyclicity anode in sodium ion battery
Hard carbon was prepared via the carbonization of the old loofah sponge at 800 degrees C for 1 h in the inert N-2 atmosphere for sodium ion battery (SIB) anode. The resultant old-loofah derived hard carbon was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and alternating current (AC) impedance. The results suggested that the old-loofah-derived hard carbon powders consisted of many irregular micro-particles with the mean particle size of 12 gm. Furthermore, the old-loofah-derived hard carbon anode also delivered satisfactory electrochemical performances in SIB. For example, the initial discharge specific capacity was as high as about 695 mAh g(-1) at 25 mA g(-1), and the reversible discharge specific capability after 1000 cycles was still about 171 mAh g(-1) even at 1000 mA g(-1), indicating long cycle stability and the promising feasibility of the old-loofah-derived hard carbon anode. The disordered micro-structure and large interlayer distance may jointly contribute into the satisfactory electrochemical performances. (C) 2018 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Biomass;Hard carbon;Old loofah;Sodium ion battery;Anode