International Journal of Control, Vol.91, No.2, 420-436, 2018
Passivity-based control of linear time-invariant systems modelled by bond graph
Closed-loop control systems are designed for linear time-invariant (LTI) controllable and observable systems modelled by bond graph (BG). Cascade and feedback interconnections of BG models are realised through active bonds with no loading effect. The use of active bonds may lead to non-conservation of energy and the overall system is modelled by proposed pseudo-junction structures. These structures are build by adding parasitic elements to the BG models and the overall system may become singularly perturbed. The structures for these interconnections can be seen as consisting of inner structures that satisfy energy conservation properties and outer structures including multiport-coupled dissipative fields. These fields highlight energy properties like passivity that are useful for control design. In both interconnections, junction structures and dissipative fields for the controllers are proposed, and passivity is guaranteed for the closed-loop systems assuring robust stability. The cascade interconnection is applied to the structural representation of closed-loop transfer functions, when a stabilising controller is applied to a given nominal plant. Applications are given when the plant and the controller are described by state-space realisations. The feedback interconnection is used getting necessary and sufficient stability conditions based on the closed-loop characteristic polynomial, solving a pole-placement problem and achieving zero-stationary state error.