Electrochimica Acta, Vol.268, 150-162, 2018
A new organic redox species-indole tetraone trapped MWCNT modified electrode prepared by in-situ electrochemical oxidation of indole for a bifunctional electrocatalysis and simultaneous flow injection electroanalysis of hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide
Indole and its derivatives are important core constituents of several natural, biological and pharmaceutical relevant compounds. In general, electrochemical oxidation of indole on solid electrodes in acid and non-aqueous conditions results in the formation of polyindole like compounds as an end product. Selective and controlled electrochemical oxidation of indole and its derivatives to redox active intermediate compound/s without over-oxidation to the polymeric product is a challenging research task. Herein, we report an electrochemical oxidation of electro-inactive indole to a multi-redox active Indole Tetraone (1H-Indole-2,3,4,7-Tetraone)-a new organic redox species (Ind-Tetraone) and entrapment as a surface-confined redox active species on multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/MWCNT@Ind-Tetraone) in physiological pH solution. GCE/MWCNT@Ind-Tetraone showed a well-defined surface-confined redox peaks at E-1/2, -0.270 V (A(1)/C-1) and +0.270 V (A(2)/C-2) vs Ag/AgCl. From the physicochemical characterizations by Raman and IR spectroscopy, XPS, LC-MS (an ethanolic extract) and control electrochemical experiments with various substituted indole derivatives, it is confirmed the formation of Ind-Tetraone species without any polyindole formation upon the electrochemical oxidation of indole on MWCNT surface. Electrochemical oxidation of nitrogen atom as a radical species and subsequent electron-transfer/water addition reaction is proposed as a possible mechanism for the Ind-Tetraone product formation. A simultaneous electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine and reduction reaction of hydrogen peroxide at two discreet potentials has been demonstrated as a bifunctional application of the GCE/MWCNT@Ind-Tetraone system. In further, the GCE/MWCNT@Ind-Tetraone as a electrochemical detector, simultaneous flow injection analysis of hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide was also demonstrated as a proof of concept for the bifunctional application. (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.