Desalination, Vol.437, 7-14, 2018
Formation and speciation of disinfection byproducts in desalinated seawater blended with treated drinking water during chlorination
Desalinated seawater containing bromide ion (Br-) blended with drinking water may produce brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) during chlorination, which would pose a potential threat to human health when incorporated into the municipal water supply system. This study investigated the formation and speciation of twenty-one DBPs during chlorination in two desalinated seawater blends, i.e., treated drinking water blended with reverse osmosis (RO) permeate and post-treatment (PT) product water. After chlorination, the number and concentrations of DBPs formed in the desalinated seawater obviously enhanced, with chlorinated DBPs (Cl-DBPs) dominating. Sixteen DBPs were found in both RO and PT blends samples during chlorination, in which haloacetic acids (HAAs) had the highest concentration, followed by trihalomethanes (THMs) and halogen acetonitriles (HANs). When the volume of desalinated seawater in the blends was increased, the transformation from Cl-DBPs to Br-DBPs was observed for THMs and HANs, indicating that Br- was more easily incorporated into THMs and HANs than HAAs. Additionally, more Br- participated in the DBPs formation per unit dissolved organic carbon and Br-DBPs/DBPs increased, when the blended ratio of the desalinated seawater increased. The DBP-associated toxicity in the blends was estimated based on the toxicity-weighted concentration with Br-HANs as the predominant contributor, followed by Cl-HAAs.