Bioresource Technology, Vol.253, 94-104, 2018
Pilot-scale outdoor photobioreactor culture of the marine dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum: Production of a karlotoxins-rich extract
A pilot-scale bioprocess was developed for the production of karlotoxin-enriched extracts of the marine algal dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum. A bubble column and a flat-panel photobioreactors (80-281 L) were used for comparative assessment of growth. Flow hydrodynamics and energy dissipation rates (EDR) in the bioreactors were characterized through robust computational fluid dynamic simulations. All cultures were conducted monoseptically outdoors. Bubble column (maximum cell productivity in semicontinuous operation of 58x10(3) cell mL(-1) day(-1)) proved to be a better culture system for this alga. In both reactors, the local EDR near the headspace, and in the sparger zone, were more than one order of magnitude higher than the average value in the whole reactor (=4x10(-3) W kg(-1)). Extraction of the culture and further purification resulted in the desired KTXs extracts. Apparently, the alga produced three congeners KTXs: KmTx-10 and its sulfated derivative (sulfo-KmTx-10) and KmTx-12. All congeners possessed hemolytic activity.