Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.495, No.3, 2296-2302, 2018
Intravital imaging of neutrophil recruitment in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury
Background: Neutrophils are known to be key players in innate immunity. Activated neutrophils induce local inflammation, which results in pathophysiologic changes during intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). However, most studies have been based on static assessments, and few have examined real-time intravital neutrophil recruitment. We herein report a method for imaging and evaluating dynamic changes in the neutrophil recruitment in intestinal IRI using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). Methods: LysM-eGFP mice were subjected to 45 min of warm intestinal ischemia followed by reperfusion. Mice received an intravenous injection of tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled albumin to visualize the microvasculature. Using a time-lapse TPLSM technique, we directly observed the behavior of neutrophils in intestinal IRI. Results: We were able to image all layers of the intestine without invasive surgical stress. At low magnification, the number of neutrophils per field of view continued to increase for 4 h after reperfusion. High-magnification images revealed the presence or absence of blood circulation. At 0-2 h after reperfusion, rolling and adhesive neutrophils increased along the vasculature. At 2-4 h after reperfusion, the irregularity of crypt architecture and transmigration of neutrophils were observed in the lamina propria. Furthermore, TPLSM imaging revealed the villus height, the diameters of the crypt, and the number of infiltrating neutrophils in the crypt. In the IRI group, the villus height 4 h after reperfusion was significantly shorter than in the control group. Conclusions: TPLSM imaging revealed the real-time neutrophil recruitment in intestinal IRI. Z-stack imaging was useful for evaluating pathophysiological changes in the intestinal wall. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.