Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.496, No.1, 133-139, 2018
Identification of a candidate enhancer for DMRT3 involved in spastic cerebral palsy pathogenesis
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a major neuronal disease and the most common movement disorder in children. Although environmental factors leading to CP have been greatly investigated, the genetic mechanism underlying CP is not well understood. Here we focused on two clinical reports that characterized a deletion involving the KANK1 gene locus in the 9p24.3 region. One report shows spastic CP and the other shows no spastic CP phenotype. Based on the epigenetic status and evolutionary conservation, we first found a functional genomic element at the noncoding region that was deleted only in patients with spastic CP. This element contains the retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptor (RAR/RXR) complex binding motif that is widely conserved among placental mammals. RAR/RXR ChIP-seq data from mouse F9 embryonal carcinoma cells that were treated with trans-retinoic acids showed that the element has a binding ability. In addition, data regarding chromosome conformation capture from mouse neural progenitor and ES cells suggested that the element spatially interacts with the Doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (Dmrt3) gene promoter that is located approximately 120 kb downstream of the RAR/RXR-binding site. Dmrt3 is detected in the developing mouse forebrain and in some interneurons in the spinal cord, and it works as a locomotion coordinator in horses and mice. Thus, the deletion of the cis-regulatory element for DMRT3 in humans may cause impaired development of the forebrain and gait abnormalities, resulting in spastic CP. In conclusion, this study provides new mechanistic insights into the genetic basis of CP. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.