Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.496, No.2, 582-587, 2018
Progression of vasogenic edema induced by activated microglia under permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion
Brain edema is a severe complication that accompanies ischemic stroke. Increasing evidence shows that inflammatory cytokines impair tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier, suggesting the involvement of microglia in brain edema. In this study, we examined the role of microglia in the progression of ischemic brain edema using mice with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. The intensity of 12-weighted imaging (T2WI) in the cerebral cortex and the striatum was elevated 3 h after occlusion and spread to peripheral regions of the ischemic hemisphere. Merged images of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and T2WI revealed the exact vasogenic edema region, which spread from the ischemic core to outside the ischemic region. Microglia were strongly activated in the ischemic region 3 h after occlusion and, notably, activated microglia were observed in the non-ischemic region 24 h after occlusion. Pretreatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation clearly suppressed not only vasogenic edema but also infarct formation. We demonstrated in this study that vasogenic edema spreads from the ischemic core to the peripheral region, which can be elicited, at least in part, by microglial activation induced by ischemia. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.