Applied Surface Science, Vol.435, 1307-1313, 2018
The effect of passivation film in preparation 3D structural carbon paper/tin oxide@carbon as freestanding anode for lithium-ion batteries
Tin-based compounds are potential anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Due to the low melting point of metallic Sn, it is hard to maintain the crystal morphology of Sn during the as-follow process of carbon coating for high performance anode. In this work, the core@shell composite of SnOx@carbon (SnOx@C) is successfully fabricated on the substrate of carbon paper (CP) through electrodeposition and carbonization based on the precursor of Sn nanoparticles. A passivation shell is essentially grown onto Sn particles to obtain a stable structure of SnOx@C, otherwise the Sn particles will be pulverized and fell off the substrate of CP during the subsequent process of carbonization. The as-produced CP/SnOx@C film has excellent flexibility and mechanical stability to be directly served as electrode for LIBs. Carbon shell prevents the detachment and agglomeration of the active particles during lithiation/delithiation processes and maintains the stability of the conductive network. After 100th cycles, CP/SnOx@C electrode delivers 0.8 mAh cm(-2), much higher than the capacity 0.37 mAh cm(-2) of CP/Sn electrode operated at the current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2). These features enable the flexible film of CP/SnOx@C to be attractive applications in energy storage devices. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.