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Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Vol.164, No.14, D1051-D1055, 2017
Microvia Filling with Copper Electroplated with Quaternary Ammonium-Based Leveler: The Evaluation of Convection-Dependent Adsorption Behavior of the Leveler
In this study, we synthesized a leveler that contained two quaternary ammonium groups attached to hexaethylene glycol. The leveler enabled void- and seam-less Cu filling of the microvia. The convection-dependent adsorption of the leveler was assessed through electrochemical analyses such as linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry on a rotating disk electrode, and the effect of convection on the adsorption of the leveler is interpreted in terms of adsorption diffusion model. In a Koutecky-Levich plot, the enhanced adsorption and inhibition of the leveler at the higher convection was clearly observed with the synthesized leveler. (c) 2017 The Electrochemical Society.