Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol.139, No.44, 15724-15737, 2017
Rhodium/Copper Cocatalyzed Highly trans-Selective 1,2-Diheteroarylation of Alkynes with Azoles via C-H Addition/Oxidative Cross-Coupling: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study
Transition metal-catalyzed addition of diaryl alkynes with arylating reagents for the synthesis of tetraarylethylenes generally encounters rigorous reaction conditions and relies on the use of prefunctionalized substrates such as organic halides or surrogates and organometallic reagents. In this work, we establish a highly trans-selective 1,2-diheteroarylation of alkynes with azoles via a rhodium/copper cocatalyzed C-H addition/oxidative coupling process. Moreover, the diheteroarylation developed herein could open a door for the synthesis of heteroarene-doped tetraarylethylenes, and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra in THF-water mixtures and solid powder verify that these tetra(hetero)arylethylenes are aggregation-induced emission (ALE) active, building a new AIE molecule library. With a combination of experimental and theoretical methods, the reaction mechanism for addition/oxidative cross-coupling of internal alkynes with azoles has been investigated. Theoretical calculations reveal that the metalation/deprotonation of azole could occur with either rhodium or copper species. When azolylrhodium is formed, an alkyne could insert into the Rh-C bond. Another azolyl group could then transfer to rhodium from azolylcopper compound. The subsequent intramolecular trans-nucleophilic addition generates the second C-C bond. Meanwhile, the putative pathway for the formation of the hydroheteroarylated byproduct has also been explained by theoretical calculations.