Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.342, 139-149, 2018
Spatial, seasonal and diurnal patterns in physicochemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in both inland and coastal regions within a megacity in China
Day and night PM2.5 samples were collected at coastal and inland stations in a megacity in China. Temporal, spatial, and directional characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations and compositions were investigated. Average PM2.5 concentration was higher at inland (153.28 mu g/m(3)) than at coastal (114.46 mu g/m(3)). PM2.5 were significantly influenced by season and site but insignificantly by diurnal pattern. Sources were quantified by a two-way and a newly developed three-way receptor models conducted using ME2. Secondary sulfate and SOC (SS&SOC, 25% and 23%), coal and biomass burning (CC&BB, 20% and 21%), crustal and cement dust (CRD&CED, 19% and 21%), secondary nitrate (SN, 13% and 18%), vehicular exhaust (VE, 14% and 17%), and sea salt (SEA, 6% and 2%) were major sources for coastal and inland. Different mechanisms of heavy pollution were observed: heavy PM2.5 caused by primary sources and secondary sources showed similar frequency at coast, while most of heavy pollutions at inland site might be associated with the elevation of secondary particles. For spatial characteristics, SS&SOC, CRD&CED contributions were higher at coastal; SN and VE presented higher fractions at inland. Higher SS&SOC, SN and CC&BB in winter might be attributed to intensive coal combustion for residential warming and to stable meteorological conditions. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.