Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol.342, 58-68, 2018
Polyaspartate extraction of cadmium ions from contaminated soil: Evaluation and optimization using central composite design
The occurrences of heavy metal contaminated sites and soils and the need for devising environmentally friendly solutions have become global issues of serious concern. In this study, polyaspartate (a highly biodegradable agent) was synthesized using L-Aspartic acid via a new modified thermal procedure and employed for extraction of cadmium ions (Cd) from contaminated soil. Response surface methodology approach using 35 full faced centered central composite design was employed for modeling, evaluating and optimizing the influence of polyaspartate concentration (36-145 mM), polyaspartate/soil ratio (5-25), initial heavy metal concentration (100-500 mg/kg), initial pH (3-6) and extraction time (6-24h) on Cd ions extracted into the polyaspartate solution and its residual concentration in the treated soil. The Cd extraction efficacy obtained reached up to 98.8%. Increase in Cd extraction efficiency was associated with increase in the polyaspartate and Cd concentration coupled with lower polyaspertate/soil ratio and initial pH. Under the optimal conditions characterized with minimal utilization of the polyaspartate and high Cd ions removal, the extractible Cd in the polyaspartate solution reached up to 84.4 mg/L which yielded 85% Cd extraction efficacy. This study demonstrates the suitability of using polyaspartate as an effective environmentally friendly chelating agent for Cd extraction from contaminated soils. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:Polyaspartate;Soil washing process;Heavy metals extraction;Central composite design;Cadmium ions