Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol.480, 13-17, 2017
Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films and nanodots grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates
Multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films and nanodots are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates via a pulsed laser deposition technique, where the HOPG surface has a honeycomb lattice structure made of carbon atoms, similar to graphene. A graphene/BFO/HOPG capacitor exhibited multiferroic properties, namely ferroelectricity (a residual polarization of 26.8 mu C/cm(2)) and ferromagnetism (a residual magnetization of 1.1 x 10(-5) emu). The BFO thin film had high domain wall energies and demonstrated switching time of approximately 82 ns. An 8-nm BFO nanodot showed a typical piezoelectric hysteresis loop with an effective residual piezoelectric constant of approximately 110 pm/V and exhibited two clearly separated current curves depending on the ferroelectric polarization direction. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.