Fuel, Vol.214, 45-54, 2018
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural production from dehydration of fructose catalyzed by Aquivion@silica solid acid
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) production from catalytic dehydration of fructose was studied over mesoporous silica heterogenized perfluorosulfonic acid resin (Aquivion@silica) catalyst. Amphiphilic Aquivion PFSA was used as both acidic and template agent for the sol-gel synthesis of amorphous mesoporous silica which was found very appropriate to effectively immobilize Aquivion resin by using an impregnation method. Various characterizations including elemental analysis, acid-base titration, XRD, FTIR, Raman, N-2 adsorption-desorption, SEM and TEM revealed that Aquivion@silica catalyst presented large surface area, sufficient porosity and afforded highly accessible sulfonic acid groups. Efficient and productive HMF production from the dehydration of fructose was achieved in the polar dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent at low temperature of 90 degrees C, i.e. 85% yield of HMF and 43 mol(HMF) mol(H+) productivity of HMF. The influence of reaction time, reaction temperature, Aquivion loading, catalyst dosage and solvent on the dehydration process was systematically investigated. The catalyst could be regenerated through a simple ion-exchange method and a stable HMF yield was maintained after being used four times.
Keywords:5-Hydroxymethylfurfural;Dehydration;Perfluorosulfonic acid resin;Mesoporous silica;Heterogeneous catalysis