Bioresource Technology, Vol.246, 150-159, 2017
Biochar based removal of antibiotic sulfonamides and tetracyclines in aquatic environments: A critical review
Utilization of biochar (BC) as a low cost adsorbent for water remediation has gained an immense research interest due to their surface functionality and porosity. Although many reports on the BC based sorptive removal of Sulfonamides (SA) and Tetracyclines (TC) are available in literature, a deep insight into sorption mechanisms is yet to be reviewed. Objective of this review is to fill the research gap of a methodological understanding of sorption mechanisms and characteristics which is essential to develop efficient methods for contaminant removal. The most common adsorption mechanism can be considered as electron donor-acceptor interactions of electron withdrawing moieties with surface arene rings. The strongest adsorption of both antibiotics occurs at mildly acidic pH where the dominant species are zwitterionic or cationic. Smaller SAs exhibit micro pore-filling effects while bulky TCs experience size exclusions. Furthermore, the effect of matrix components and modifications are also been taken into account.