Biomacromolecules, Vol.18, No.12, 4393-4404, 2017
Formulation and Composition Effects in Phase Transitions of Emulsions Costabilized by Cellulose Nanofibrils and an Ionic Surfactant
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) offer great prospects as a natural stabilizer of colloidal dispersions and complex fluids for application in food, pharma, and cosmetics. In this study, an ionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) was used as emulsifier of oil-in-water and water-in-oil emulsions that were further costabilized by addition of CNF. The adsorption properties of SDS in both, CNF dispersions and emulsions, as well as the influence of composition (CNF and SDS concentration) and formulation (ionic strength, oil, and CNF types) on the phase behavior were elucidated and described in the framework of Windsor systems. At low salinity, the phase transition of emulsions containing CNF and SDS at low concentrations was controlled by molecular transfer in the oil-in-water system. Irregular droplets and "bi-continuous" morphologies were observed at medium and high salinity for systems containing high CNF and SDS concentrations. Water-in-oil emulsions were only possible at high salinity and SDS concentrations in the presence of small amounts of CNF. The results revealed some subtle differences in CNF interfacial activity, depending on the method used for their isolation via fiber deconstruction, either from microfluidization or aqueous counter collision. Overall, we propose that the control of emulsion morphology and stability by addition of CNF opens the possibility of developing environmentally friendly complex systems that display high stability and respond to ionic strength following the expectations of classical emulsion systems.