Applied Surface Science, Vol.427, 1114-1119, 2018
Ultrasensitive label-free detection of DNA hybridization by sapphire-based graphene field-effect transistor biosensor
Graphene has attracted much attention in biosensing applications for its unique properties. Because of one-atom layer structure, every atom of graphene is exposed to the environment, making the electronic properties of graphene are very sensitive to charged analytes. Therefore, graphene is an ideal material for transistors in high-performance sensors. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method has been demonstrated the most successful method for fabricating large area graphene. However, the conventional CVD methods can only grow graphene on metallic substrate and the graphene has to be transferred to the insulating substrate for further device fabrication. The transfer process creates wrinkles, cracks, or tears on the graphene, which severely degrade electrical properties of graphene. These factors severely degrade the sensing performance of graphene. Here, we directly fabricated graphene on sapphire substrate by high temperature CVD without the use of metal catalysts. The sapphire-based graphene was patterned and make into a DNA biosensor in the configuration of field-effect transistor. The sensors show high performance and achieve the DNA detection sensitivity as low as 100 fM (10(-13) M), which is at least 10 times lower than prior transferred CVD G-FET DNA sensors. The use of the sapphire-based G-FETs suggests a promising future for biosensing applications. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.