Applied Surface Science, Vol.434, 336-350, 2018
Synthesis and characterization of titanate nanotube/single-walled carbon nanotube (TNT/SWCNT) porous nanocomposite and its photocatalytic activity on 4-chlorophenol degradation under UV and solar irradiation
The titanate nanotube/single-wall carbon nanotube (TNT/SWC NT) nanocomposites from different titania precursors were prepared by a two-step hydrothermal process. These nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, BET, Raman, FESEM, TEM, EDX, EDS, EIS, UV-vis DRS and FTIR techniques. The FESEM and TEM images showed the high porous nanocomposites with two types of tubular structure relating to TNTs and SWCNTs which were interwoven together uniformly. The XRD and Raman analysis further corroborated the chemical interaction between the SWCNT and the TNT in the nanocomposites. The photocatalytic performance of the as-synthesized composites were examined by the photodegradation of 4-CP under solar and UV illumination. The results revealed an impressive enhancement in photocatalytic activity of the nanocomposites under both irradiation conditions comparison to bare TNPs and TNTs. Amongst the TNT/SWCNT nanocomposites, 10% loading of SWCNT under UV irradiation and 5% loading of SWCNT under solar irradiation exhibited the maximum photocatalytic performance while the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of nanocomposites were not affected considerably by the type of precursor. Moreover, the mechanism and role of SWCNT were investigated and the plausible degradation pathways of 4-CP was suggested. TOC analyses was performed for determination of 4-CP mineralization rate and results showed complete mineralization after 240 and 390 min under UV and solar irradiation, respectively. The trapping experiments corroborated the O-2(-) and OH radicals as the main reactive species in 4-CP degradation process. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model was fittingly matched with the experimental data (R-2: 0.9218 and 0.9703 for UV and solar irradiation). Additionally, the stability of the nanocomposites were investigated and revealed 8% decrease in degradation efficiency after four cycles. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.